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The Adverse Effect of Proprioceptive Sense in Head-Neck according to Smartphone Usage
J Kor Phys Ther 2018;30(2):54-57
Published online April 30, 2018;
© 2018 The Korea Society of Physical Therapy.

Sung Min Son

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju, Korea
Sung Min Son
Received March 13, 2018; Revised April 23, 2018; Accepted April 23, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distribute under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution,and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: Most studies have reported pain in the head-neck and upper-limbs according to smartphone usage, which is related to the proprioception sense in the head and neck, but there have been few studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was identify the adverse effects of the proprioceptive sense in the head-neck according to smartphone usage.
Methods: Twenty-seven young adults (male: 9, female: 18) were enrolled in this study. The proprioceptive sense was measured through the joint reposition sense error and neural positon error in the head-neck during smartphone usage for 0, 5, and 20 minutes. The Noraxon MyoMotion system was used to record the joint position angle and neutral positon in the head-neck. One-way repeated ANOVA was used to identify the differences between the three smartphone use durations and the least-squares difference was used as a post hoc test. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software.
Results: The joint reposition sense error and neural positon error in the head-neck were significantly different among the 0, 5, and 20 minutes of smartphone usage (p<0.05). In the post hoc test, the joint reposition sense error and neural positon error showed a significant difference between smartphone use for 0 minute and 5 minute, and between smartphone use for 0 minute and 20 minutes.
Conclusion: This study suggests that smartphone use within 5 minutes can have adverse effects on the proprioceptive sense. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the appropriate use time and break time when using smart phones.
Keywords : Smartphone, Proprioceptive sense, Head-neck

April 2018, 30 (2)
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